Posts for Tag: choropleth

Current Bay Area Air Quality

Posted In: Environment | Health
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Fires are once again raging in California and air quality in one of the most populated metropolitan areas in the country (the San Francisco Bay Area) is quite poor. This map show current air quality in the Bay Area. For more information see the EPA’s Air Quality website.

AQI colors

EPA has assigned a specific color to each AQI category to make it easier for people to understand quickly whether air pollution is reaching unhealthy levels in their communities. For example, the color orange means that conditions are "unhealthy for sensitive groups," while red means that conditions may be "unhealthy for everyone," and so on.

Air Quality Index
Levels of Health Concern
Numerical
Value
Meaning
Good 0 to 50 Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little or no risk.
Moderate 51 to 100 Air quality is acceptable; however, for some pollutants there may be a moderate health concern for a very small number of people who are unusually sensitive to air pollution.
Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups 101 to 150 Members of sensitive groups may experience health effects. The general public is not likely to be affected.
Unhealthy 151 to 200 Everyone may begin to experience health effects; members of sensitive groups may experience more serious health effects.
Very Unhealthy 201 to 300 Health alert: everyone may experience more serious health effects.
Hazardous 301 to 500 Health warnings of emergency conditions. The entire population is more likely to be affected.

For more information and additional maps see the EPA’s Air Quality website.

Bitcoin Energy Consumption – Does It Consume More Energy Than Your State?

Posted In: Energy | Money
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This visualization looks at the staggeringly high energy use of Bitcoin and puts it into context: comparing it to electricity usage of US states. Unfortunately for Bitcoin, high energy usage is an intended feature of the system, rather than an unintended consequence. This is because mining is an increasingly energy intensive process, based upon increasingly computationally intensive calculations that are performed on high powered computers and graphical processing units.

Currently, 28 out of 50 states plus the District of Columbia all have lower electricity consumption than estimated annual bitcoin electricity consumption (~73 TWh per year). These states are highlighted in variations of yellow. This is approximately equal to the average annual electricity usage across all US States. States with higher electricity consumption than bitcoin are highlighted in shades of red.

When dividing the total energy use (73 TWh) by the current number of transactions (93 million), we get an average energy consumption of 783 kWh per transaction. Click on the “Energy per Transaction” button to see this visualization. What’s crazy is that a transaction is simply a transfer of bitcoin between “wallets”, recording the transaction, and a validation of the process. There’s no good reason why verifying digital transactions should take this much energy, except that it was built into the fundamental process of validating and mining bitcoin. 783 kWh is larger than the monthly per capita electricity consumption in 10 US states. It could also drive you and your family over 2000 miles in an electric car (e.g. Tesla Model S).

I’m not expert enough in this area to know how much more energy consumption will rise into the future, but if crypto advocates’ predictions come true and bitcoin is used extensively, millions of transactions will occur per hour instead of per year and the price of bitcoin may rise much higher than it currently is. If the price rises, then miners will be willing to expend more energy to “mine” the more valuable bitcoin. Needless to say, this sounds like a very bad idea from an energy consumption and sustainability standpoint.

Data and Tools:
State energy data comes from the US Department of Energy. Estimates of Bitcoin energy use come from Digiconomist’s Bitcoin Energy Consumption Index. The choropleth map is visualized using javascript and the Leaflet.js library with Open Street Map tiles.

bitcoin energy

Most Stressed States

Posted In: Health
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Long-term stress has been shown to be detrimental for your health. While it’s probably not possible to completely eliminate stress from people’s lives, there are many individual choices and decisions that can influence the amount of stress that people experience, including where they live, what job they have, their socio-economic conditions etc. . . One interesting bit of data analysis looks at an aggregate level to understand how stress differs from state to state depending on specific economic, demographic and other geographic factors.


This post shows a map of the most stressed states in the United States. The map is color coded from red (most stress) to blue (least stress) as a ranked list. Stress is divided into several categories including:

  • Work Stress is calculated from data on work hours, commute times, job security, unemployment rate, income growth and other metrics.
  • Money Stress is calculated from data on income, debt, credit scores, bankruptcy, housing affordability, poverty levels and other metrics.
  • Family Stress is calculated from data on divorce rates, single parents, childcare costs, parental leave policies and other metrics.
  • Health and Safety Stress is calculated from data on adult health, depression, mental health, health insurance, physical activity rate, crime rate, and other metrics. 

Click on the buttons below the map to switch between the different categories.

Data and tools: The data comes from Wallethub’s analysis of data from a wide range of sources including the US Census, BLS, CDC etc.. Unfortunately the data used is a ranked list rather than a set of scores. The ranking doesn’t tell you if a state is 10% more stressful or 10 times more stressful, just that one is higher than the other. Click the link for a full description of their methodology and data sources. The choropleth map was created using javascript to parse the data and the plot.ly open source graphing library to visualize it.

Health Insurances Losses from Senate Bill by State

Posted In: Healthcare
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The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) released a report that analyzed the impacts of the Senate health care bill and estimated that 22 million Americans would lose health care by 2026 (see previous post).  22 million amounts to almost 7% of the US population (about 1 in 15 Americans).  I wondered how the impacts of these changes would be distributed across different states.

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